Essential QualitiesThe Center for Applied Special Technology (CAST) developed a theoretical framework consisting of three essential qualities that universally designed instruction should have: multiple means of representation, multiple means of engagement, and multiple means of expression.
1. The instruction utilizes multiple means of representation.
- Powerpoint presentations
- Overhead transparencies
- Assignments in written form and posted on course website
- Accessible electronic materials
- Lecture outlines or notes distributed in class and/or posted on course website
- Study guides
- Summary of major concepts
2. The instruction utilizes multiple means of engagement .
- Variety of assignments (e.g., readings, group projects, tutorials, web searches)
- Small group discussions, whole-class discussions, lectures, etc.
- Teaching of explicit strategies to learn the material
3. The instruction utilizes multiple means of expression .
- Variety of graded exercises (e.g., papers, examinations, homework, presentations)
- Multiple formats on examinations (e.g., essay, short answer, oral)
- Choices in graded exercises (e.g., final exam or final paper)
- Sufficient time on examinations
- Use of word processing, spell check, and grammar check
Sources:Center for Applied Special Technology (CAST)
Curriculum Transformation and Disability (CTAD)